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July 29, 2009

憲法9条と非武装国民抵抗②

 引き続き非武装国民抵抗の問題点について宮田光雄『非武装国民抵抗の思想』を参考に考えてみたい。
 非武装で殉死を覚悟で守るべきは一体何なのか。領土なのか、社会制度や政治体制などの国体なのか、集団としての国民なのか、それとも個々人の生命や財産なのか。この問題は、心情的には個々人の生命や財産ということになるだろう。しかし、実際には集団としての国民の生命や国体としての社会制度や政治体制、あるいはそれらを物理的に担保する領土ということになるだろう。
 この問題について宮田は守るべき対象は社会的デモクラシーの体制であるという。決して国民の生命や財産が第一義的な防衛目標ではない。
 「『・・・≪市民的防衛≫の基本的前提条件をなすものは≪社会的デモクラシー≫の体制である。政治過程にたいして監視と参加を怠らない≪成人した市民≫こそ、そのもっとも有用な責任主体といわねばならない』(C・ラウー「市民的抵抗者の精神態度」K・ゴットシュタイン編『会議記録・市民的防衛』1969年)。つまり、こうした社会的生活様式こそ、まさに守るに価する本来の防衛目標なのである。そこから生まれた真のデモクラシーの精神は、占領によって、たとえデモクラティックな社会機構が秩序正しい活動を阻止される場合にも、国民抵抗を支える忠誠のエネルギー源となるであろう」(117頁)。
 これに続けて宮田はこう記している。
「その意味では、不法な侵略や権力奪取が行われる瞬間こそは、それまでデモクラシーが実質的に存在したか否か、それとも権威主義的支配を隠蔽するイデオロギー的建前にすぎなかったか、が白日のもとにあきらかになる最終判定の時点といっても過言ではない」(117頁)
 この文の意味するところを、うがった見方をすれば、「真のデモクラシーの精神」にあふれた外国勢力が侵略しても、それは「それまでデモクラシーが実質的に存在」せずに「権威主義的支配を隠蔽するイデオロギー的建前にすぎなかった」体制を変革する「解放」だということにならないか。そうした秘められた意図があるのか、宮田は「非暴力抵抗の精神は、仮想敵にたいする官庁的に組織化された≪調練≫によって形成されるのではなく、むしろデモクラシーの社会体制を脅かす現実の危険にたいする自発的な市民の反対行動からのみ生み出されるであろう。デモクラシーを守り、さらにそれを一層実質的に民主化するための日常闘争にまさる国民抵抗の修練はありえない。こうした社会核心のための政治的・経済的闘争において非暴力の原理を摘要する可能性は枚挙にいとまない。今日、しばしば聞かれる≪参加する民主主義≫の要求から≪院外野党≫の運動、さらに≪市民的不服従≫の行動にいたるまで、いずれも平時における非暴力抵抗の国民的訓練というべきであろう」。(121頁)。
 冷戦時代のしかも1971年秋のベトナム戦争当時に執筆されたという時代背景を考えれば、社会主義勢力を「真のデモクラシーの精神」にあふれた社会体制とみなし、一方の資本主義勢力(特に日本)を「デモクラシーが実質的に存在」せずに「権威主義的支配を隠蔽するイデオロギー的建前にすぎなかった」体制と宮田がみなしていると考えてもあながち的外れではないだろう。したがって、一般の日本人が社会主義勢力に侵略されたらどうするという危惧を抱いていたのとは反対に、仮に社会主義勢力に「侵略」されたとしても、それは「真のデモクラシーの精神」にあふれた社会体制による「解放」であって決して「侵略」ではない、というのが非武装国民抵抗の政治的本質ではなかったろうか。
 実際、「侵略」が「解放」と言い換えられた事例をいくつかみることができる。1975年の北ベトナムによる南ベトナム「解放」である。ベトナム解放戦線による解放といいながら実質的には北ベトナムによる侵略であった。それどころか「侵略」を「解放」と言い換えた事例は、われわれ自身がすでに太平洋戦争の敗戦時に経験していることでもある。米軍は解放軍であって占領軍ではなかった。皆、諸手をあげてマッカーサーによる統治をうけいれたのである。誰一人として、非武装であれ武装であれ国民抵抗などしなかった。
 百歩譲って、こうした時代的文脈を無視したとしても、非武装国民民抵抗には問題がある。それは、「真のデモクラシーの精神」にあふれた社会体制が「市民的抵抗」によって奪還、獲得、復興されたとして、その体制を防衛するのもやはり非暴力市民的抵抗によるのだろうか。非武装国民抵抗戦略の問題は非暴力で権力を奪取した後の体制を非暴力でまもることができるのかという問題である。歴史の多くは、それが以前よりも苛烈になることを教えている。
 たとえば1979年のイラン革命である。イラン革命は、フランス革命以来はじめての市民の抵抗によるほぼ無血の革命となった。しかし、権力奪還後後の市民派内部の権力闘争はすさまじく、イスラム宗教勢力は革命防衛隊という治安部隊であり民兵組織を使って民主派を根こそぎ逮捕、監禁、虐殺した。いかなる体制であろうとも、一旦権力を握れば、それを防衛するために警察権力や軍事力等の暴力を行使せざるを得ない。つまり非武装国民抵抗とは権力奪取のための戦略の一種でしかなく、一旦権力奪取に成功した後まで非暴力国民抵抗戦略をとるべきとはいっていない。実際、非武装の「真のデモクラシーの精神」にあふれた社会体制側がどのようにして体制を維持するのであろうか。宮田光雄先生をはじめ非武装国民抵抗運動の主張者は、「真のデモクラシーの精神」があれば、軍事力はもちろん警察さえなくても体制は維持できるとお考えなのだろうか。論理的には、そのように主張しなければ整合性がとれないし、また憲法9条の非暴力主義はそれを求めている。憲法9条は憲法9条体制を守ることも非暴力であることを要求する歴史上はじめて(多分。もし先例があったとして、恐らくそのような「憲法」をもった国は歴史からは消えている)の画期的な憲法といえる。

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