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July 28, 2009

憲法9条と「新しい戦争」③非武装抵抗戦略の問題

 憲法9条と「新しい戦争」➀で長谷部恭男『憲法と平和を問い直す』(ちくま新書465、2004年)を紹介した。長谷部によれば、憲法9条を「準則」として遵守し、自衛隊を廃棄し国家による自衛も否定すれば、日本が侵略された場合には、第1に群民蜂起やパルチザン戦による侵略軍への武装抵抗、第2に非暴力不服従、第3に一切の抵抗をせず侵略・支配を受け入れる「善き生き方」としての絶対平和主義の実践、第4に「世界統一国家による『全世界を覆う警察サービス』の実現という四つの戦略があるという。
 長谷部の戦略の前提となっている憲法9条は、憲法前文とあわせて理解すべきだと考える。すなわち前文には本文を拘束する法規範性があるのであり、前文を無視して憲法9条は存立しないし、前文抜きの戦略は有り得ない。そこであらためて前文の重要な部分を抜き出してみる。
 「日本国民は、恒久の平和を念願し、人間相互の関係を支配する崇高な理想を深く自覚するのであって、平和を愛する諸国民の公正と信義に信頼して、われらの安全と生存を保持しようと決意した。われらは、平和を維持し、専制と隷従、圧迫と偏狭を地上から永遠に除去しようと努めてゐる国際社会において、名誉ある地位を占めたいと思ふ。われらは、全世界の国民が、ひとしく恐怖と欠乏から免れ、平和のうちに生存する権利を有することを確認する」。
 「人間相互の関係を支配する崇高な理想を深く自覚するのであって」との部分からは、日本国民は国内外の人々を問わず全ての人間相互の関係において崇高な理想が支配していると深く自覚しており、また「平和を愛する諸国民の公正と信義に信頼して」との部分からは、他国の国民が平和を愛しているおり、日本国民はかれらの公正と信義を信頼しているとの決意が述べられている。この決意を素直に読む限り、日本国憲法は性善説に基づき、世の中全ての人は善人であり他人や他国民を傷つけることなど有り得ないという前提にたっている。だからこそ憲法9条で軍隊も持たず、戦争もしないということが意味を持つのである。さらに善人しかいない世の中であれば警察力も必要のない、一切の暴力を排した絶対平和主義を前提にした憲法なのである。自衛隊が違憲ならば、海上保安庁も警察も裁判所も違憲である。なぜなら世の中に悪人はいないことが憲法の前提だからである。
 したがって、絶対平和主義の憲法でとりうる戦略とは、実際には長谷部のいう第3の戦略しか取り得ない。なぜならそれ以外の戦略は、憲法前文の精神に反して「平和を愛する諸国民の公正と信義に信頼して」いないからである。この絶対平和主義の戦略が非現実的などということは全くない。われわれは戦後、厳密には冷戦時代は、少なくとも米国(あるいは西側諸国)の世「公正と信義に信頼して」、一切の抵抗をせず「米国」の侵略・支配を受け入れる「善き生き方」としての絶対平和主義を実践してきたのである。たしかに自衛隊は創った。しかし、それもまた「米国の公正と信義に信頼」した「善き生き方」として受け入れてきたのである。
 ところでいわゆる護憲派の中には、第2の戦略である非暴力不服従すなわち非武装抵抗を主張する人たちが多い。上述したように、非武装抵抗運動そのものは「平和を愛する諸国民の公正と信義に信頼して」いないという意味で憲法前文に反しており、自衛隊による武力行使に反対する護憲派もまた同様に違憲の非武装運動を主張しているのである。それを別にしても、長谷部も主張するように、非暴力不服従戦略は問題の多い戦略である。
 そもそも非暴力不服従運動がまるで無血運動であるかのように捉えられていることに大きな問題がある。非暴力不服従運動は時には武力以上の犠牲を強いる運動である。実際、ガンジーの非暴力運動でも6000人以上の犠牲者を出している。ガンジー自身も非暴力不服従が無血の運動などとは一切口外していない。それどころかユダヤ人の虐殺について、仮に民族が全滅しても非暴力を徹底すべきだといっていた。非暴力運動に犠牲はつきものであり、ガンジーは最後は非暴力運動に殉死した。
 日本で非武装不服従運動について一般書を著したのは神学者の宮田光雄氏である。彼は『非武装国民抵抗の思想』(岩波新書、1971年)で、イギリスの海軍提督キング・ホールの『核時代における防衛』(1958年)を参考に日本の非武装抵抗運動について語っている。キング・ホールを含め欧米には戦略論として非武装抵抗論を主張する学者は多い。中でも非暴力戦争のクラウゼヴィッツとしてジーン・シャープ(Gene Sharp, The Politics of Nonviolent Action, Part One: Power and Struggle, MA: Porter Sargent, 1973) が特に名を知られている。しかし、宮田、ホール、シャープの誰であれ、彼らの非武装抵抗戦略論には致命的な欠陥があり、現在の「新しい戦争」には適応できない。
 その問題は合理性と倫理性の二つに大別できる。
 第1の問題は合理性である。非武装抵抗戦略論の理論的前提は、核戦略論と同様に合理的主体モデルである。
 そもそも非武装抵抗戦略は、宮田、ホール、シャープにしても冷戦時代に著作を執筆していることでもわかるように、核時代の核戦争を前提にした戦略論である。つまり核戦略論と対をなす「旧い戦争」の戦略論である。「新しい戦争」の時代に入った今日、核戦略論の有効性が失われたように核戦略の対抗戦略としての非武装国民抵抗戦略は時代後れになった。
 「旧い戦争」と「新しい戦争」の特徴を比較してみると次のようになる。
【旧い戦争】                 【新しい戦争】
➀国家間戦争                  LIC(低強度紛争)
②全面戦争                   限定戦争
③核兵器                    精密誘導兵器
④配分価値をめぐる戦争             承認価値をめぐる戦争 

 非武装国民抵抗が前提とする戦争は、上記の「旧い戦争」である。たしかに「旧い戦争」には合理的戦略として非武装国民抵抗が有効な場合もある。たとえば全ての非武装抵抗論が前提にしているのが、国家間の全面戦争の場合、とりわけ核兵器が使用されるような場合には、戦争による犠牲と非武装抵抗による犠牲とを比較考量すれば、経済的、政治的にも非武装抵抗の方が合理的な場合がある。つまり核兵器で全滅するよりは降伏や侵略を受け入れて、他日を期したほうがよい場合がある。こうした合理的判断が有効なのは、相手国が合理的に判断し、相手国を核攻撃して全滅させるよりは、占領、支配して自国の利益にかなうようにさせる方がよいとの功利主義的判断をした場合のみである。非武装国民抵抗運動は、こうした国家を合理的主体とみなし、いずれの国家も国益を最大化するために合理的に、功利主義的に判断するとの前提にたっている。この判断は核戦略や現実主義の戦略理論と全く同様である。シャープが非暴力戦争のクラウゼヴィッツと呼ばれるのもこうした合理主体モデルや功利主義的戦略に基づいているからである。
 一方現在の「新しい戦争」では、紛争主体は国家とは限らない。むしろテロ、ゲリラ組織、犯罪集団、民族組織、宗教団体等、武装した非国家主体が主流である。こうした非国家主体によるいわゆるLICが国家間戦争に変わって武力紛争の中心を占めるようになっている。また使用される兵器も核兵器のような大量破壊兵器ではなく、自爆テロのような爆弾や、それに対抗するための精密誘導兵器である。被害も極限化される。たしかに無辜の市民が巻き添えになる可能性は否定できないものの、核戦争のような大量破壊による巻き添えとは比較にならないくらいに犠牲者の数は極限化される。だから武力行使の方が非暴力よりも犠牲が少ない場合も出てくる。
 たとえば一般には非武力的手段とみなされている経済制裁である。以前のブログにも書いたがイラクに対する経済制裁では最初の10年間で100万が死亡した。一方イラク戦争での犠牲者はそれよりもはるかに少ない。武力が常に他の手段よりも犠牲者が多いというのは、核戦争や国家間の全面戦争(しかも第1次、2次世界大戦型。湾岸戦争やイラク戦争にはあてはまらない)の場合だけである。したがって、合理主義的、功利主義的判断に基づく非武装国民抵抗戦略は核戦略がそうであったように冷戦時代の遺物といってもよいだろう。
 そして何よりも問題は、「新しい戦争」は承認をめぐる戦争だということである。つまりナショナリズム、宗教、思想などアイデンティティが争点となる戦争である。この戦争には一切の妥協はない。「旧い戦争」が主として領土の割譲、占領など経済的利益の配分をめぐる戦争であり、足して二で割るという妥協が可能な戦争であるのとは全く対照的である。一種の宗教戦争のような戦争こそが「新しい戦争」の本質である。したがって非武装であろうがなかろうが、抵抗する限りすなわち自分たちのイデオロギーを受け入れない限り、殲滅される可能性は否定できない。「新しい戦争」は非武装抵抗戦略が考えているように、すべての戦争を経済的問題すなわち配分をめぐる戦争には還元できない。非武装抵抗戦略は配分をめぐる戦争には有効な場合もあるが、承認をめぐる戦争では全く無効である。
 非武装国民抵抗の第2の問題は倫理性である。
 非武装国民抵抗は、自らは主体的に暴力を使わない。それは上記の合理モデルによれば暴力を使用することが非倫理的であるからではなく、むしろ非合理的であるからである。単純に言えば、上述したように武力抵抗よりも非暴力抵抗の方が犠牲が少ないとの合理主義的、功利主義的判断だからである。しかし、抵抗側には犠牲者が生れることを覚悟しなければならない。しかもその覚悟はだれからの強制でもなく自発的でなければならない。非武装、非暴力を物理的にでなくても心理的にでも強制すれば、それは非暴力ではなく暴力でしかない。それこそ非武装国民抵抗戦略の倫理に悖る。とはいえ全ての人が強制なしに自発的に一致団結して非暴力抵抗運動に参加できるのだろうか。
 よしんば、子どもも老人も皆がみずからの命を犠牲にして非武装抵抗に協力したとしても、非武装国民抵抗戦略には倫理的問題が残る。すなわち「殺さない」ということは実践できたとしても「殺させない」という倫理が実践できないからである。真の非暴力主義とは「殺さない、殺させない」ということである。相手にも暴力を行使させないことこそ真の非暴力主義である。しかし、非暴力武装抵抗は場合によっては多くの殉死を求めることになる。逆に言えば、相手が多くの人々を殺傷することになる。敵が暴力をふるうことの非倫理性だけではなく、それを傍観することの非倫理性も非武装国民抵抗戦略にはある。子どもを殺されるのを傍観できる親がいたとして、その親は非暴力を実践したとして称賛されるのだろうか、それとも人倫に悖る人非人として非難されるのだろうか。
 実はこの問題は、抵抗運動ではなく、人道的介入の問題としてわれわれの前に立ちふさがっている。非武装抵抗の多くは、武装介入しないほうが合理的に判断して犠牲者が少ないとの判断から、人道的武力介入にも反対している。合理主義的、功利主義的に正しいとしても、では虐殺を傍観することの非倫理性をどのように考えるのか。
 さらに非武装抵抗戦略の最大の問題は、合理的判断に立つのか、倫理的判断に立つのかという問題である。憲法を守る日本人の多くは、非武装抵抗運動は武力行使が非倫理的であるからという理由で非武装抵抗運動を支持するであろう。一方合理的判断に立った非武装抵抗運動は、場合によっては、武装抵抗運動の方が経済的、政治的に功利主義的に判断して有利になるとの判断に立つ。しかし、もし、合理主義的判断をはじめから否定するのなら、倫理的判断に立った非武装抵抗戦略と同じになる。つまり合理的判断に立った非武装抵抗戦略は、通常の武装抵抗戦略と本質的には変わらないということである。一方倫理的判断に立った非武装抵抗戦略は絶対平和主義の非武装無抵抗戦略と本質的には変わらないということである。
 冷戦時代の非武装抵抗戦略論が無効になった以上、憲法を遵守する限り、日本人は絶対平和主義戦略をとる以外に方法はない。その戦略とは具体的には、米国にさらに「侵略、占領され」米国と一体化し、自衛隊員に全員米国籍を与えて、自衛隊を米軍化するのである。そして「日系アメリカ人」の自衛隊による日本防衛により、良心的兵役拒否国家ではなくアーミッシュ国家になることである。憲法9条に基づく戦略とは、「アーミッシュ国家化」である。

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