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July 05, 2009

殉死をもとめる憲法九条

  死んでも、自らの命を賭してでも憲法9条を守ろうという人たち増えていることに最近気がついた。
 随分上の世代だが、1926年生れ山口瞳が「私の根本思想」嵐山光三郎編『男性自身傑作選 熟年篇』新潮文庫、2003年)に次のように記している。
「人は、私のような無抵抗主義は理想論だと言うだろう。その通り。私は女々しくて卑怯主義の理想主義である。
 私は、日本という国は亡びてしまってもいいと思っている。皆殺しにされてもいいと思っている。かつて、歴史上に、人を傷つけたり殺したりすることが厭で、そのために亡びてしまった国家があったといったことで充分ではないか」(227頁)。戦前生れの山口瞳にとって無抵抗主義は大戦の経験が影響しているのであろう。
 私とほぼ同じ世代で1950年生れの中沢新一も、太田光・中沢新一『憲法九条を世界遺産に』(集英社新書、2006年)で護憲のための犠牲を覚悟すべきだと次のように論じている。
「(中沢)・・・日本が軍隊を持とうが持つまいが、いやおうなく戦争に巻き込まれていく状態はあると思います。平和憲法護持と言っていた人たちが、その現実をどう受け入れるのか。そのとき、多少どころか、かなりの犠牲が発生するかもしれない。普通では実現できないものを守ろうとしたり、考えたり、そのとおりに生きようとすると、必ず犠牲が伴います。僕は、その犠牲を受け入れたいと思います。覚悟を持って、価値というものを守りたいと思う。」
「太田 憲法九条を世界遺産にするということは、状況によっては、殺される覚悟も必要だということですね。」
「中沢 突き詰めれば、そういうことです。無条件で護憲しろという人たち、あるいはこの憲法は現実的でないから変えろという人たち、その両方になじめません。価値あるものを守るためには、気持ちのいいことだけではすまないぞと。」
 まさに、その覚悟や、よし!である。憲法9条に殉ずる覚悟こそ真の護憲派に求められる心意気である。
  彼らの立場は、まさかの時には憲法9条とともに殉死する覚悟である。そしてかれら憲法九条殉死派に満腔からの賛意を呈しているのが、1965年生まれの専修大学教授田村理である。彼は『国家は僕らをまもらない-愛と自由の憲法論』(朝日新書、2007年)の中で、彼ら二人の意見を受けて、こう記している。
「まったく同感だ。だから、憲法9条をまもろうと言いながら、『自衛権』は日本国憲法でも当然認められるとし、『武力なき自衛権』に逃げ込んでしまった護憲派憲法学の多くを、僕は断じて支持できない。その『覚悟の甘さ』はすぐに人々に伝わり、憲法9条の魅力を欺瞞にかえた。首相でさえ『正当防衛権を認めることは戦争を誘発することになる』から自衛戦争も放棄するのだといい、文部省が『新しい憲法の話し』で中学生に『正しいことぐらい強いものはありません』と胸をはった時代もあったのに、憲法学が、『卑怯未練の理想主義者』になれなかったことが残念でならない」。
 彼ら三者に共通しているのは、無抵抗主義すなわち自衛権の放棄であり、国家によるいかなる武力行使も否定するということである。究極のところ「覚悟」をもって憲法9条に殉ずることである。
 憲法を字義どおりに解釈するなら、かれらの見解は全く正しい。そもそも、私がいつも言っていることだが、憲法の内容は義務教育を終えた普通の国民が理解できる範囲でなければならない。なぜなら憲法は、国民が国家に対し守るよう求めた国民からの約束だからである。しでもないこうでもないと憲法学者が解釈すべきものではない。そもそも憲法が学問の対象になること自体がおかしな話だ。
 ここでは憲法九条が自然権である自衛権を否定しているかどうかの憲法解釈をするつもりはない。結論から言えば、人間には自衛権すなわち正当防衛権はあるが、その類推としての国家に自衛権があると考えるのは間違いである。たとえばホッブズは人間の身体性から自然権としての自己保存の権利を正当化したが、国家については一言も触れていない。
 いずれにせよ、憲法九条が自衛権を否定しているのは、田村が記した通り、憲法制定当時は当然のこととしてみなされていた。また憲法九条の思想的淵源はカント(彼も人民の武装抵抗は肯定している)などではなく、第一次世界大戦後に澎湃として沸き起こったレビンソンやデューイらの「戦争非合法化」論にあるとの意見のほうが正しい(たとえば河上暁弘『日本国憲法第九条成立の思想的淵源』専修大学出版局、2006年)。さらに憲法9条の起草に携わり、徹底して日本の非武装化を画策したGHQ関係者や日本の平和主義思想の本流であるキリスト教徒とくにクウエーカー教徒の影響も大きいと思われる。とにかく憲法9条が自衛権も含め全ての国家権力による暴力行使を否定していることは疑いもない。つまり憲法九条は、憲法九条の理念を護るために、人々に憲法九条に殉ずることを求めているのである。上記の三人が求めている覚悟とは、憲法九条に殉ずる覚悟である。
 しかし、憲法殉死派のかれらの最大の問題点は、国民の生命、財産、人権を守るために国家の国民に対する約束である憲法が、その憲法を守るために国民自身が人身御供になるべきだという矛盾である。国民に護憲のために殉死を求める憲法というのは、国民に護国のために殉死を求める国家とどうちがうのだろうか。戦前は国家のために殉死を拒否する者は非国民と非難された。翻って、憲法9条のために殉死を拒否する者もやはり非国民として非難されるのだろうか。殉死した人は、護国神社ならぬ、護憲神社に英霊として祭ってもらえるのであろうか。護憲派の中でも非暴力無抵抗主義の絶対平和主義者と改憲派の武装抵抗主義の絶対現実主者と殉死を求めるという意味では全く変わらない。両者は合わせ鏡にしかすぎない。お互いに映る己の姿をひたすら相互に批判し続けている。それが己自身の姿だとも自覚しないままに。 

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