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February 01, 2015

イスラム国のYOUTUBEテロ

テロは心理的暴力である。殺傷、破壊という物理的暴力を恐怖という心理的暴力に変えて身代金の獲得、人質の交換、政治宣伝などの目的を達成する。この物理的暴力を心理的暴力に変換するのが宣伝、広報のための手段としてのメディアである。
 テロの歴史はメディアの発達の歴史でもある。そもそも現代テロの始まりは、1968年7月にパレスチナ解放人民戦線がイスラエルのエルアル機をハイジャックしたことに始まる。目的は、世界にパレスチナ問題を知らせることにあった。しかし、当時はまだ衛星中継が十分に発達せずに世界的なニュースになることはなかった。その後衛生中継の発達とともに、テレビはテロの心理的恐怖を拡散させるメディアとして重要な役割を果たした。1972年、パレスチナ過激派組織「黒い九月」によるミュンヘン・オリンピック襲撃事件、1977年の日本赤軍による日航機ハイジャック事件など、事件の経過が刻々とテレビで放映され、国際社会に大きな衝撃を与えた。そして、2001年のアルカイダによる9.11同時多発テロでは、世界中の何十億もの人々が世界貿易センタービルの倒壊を目撃し、テロの恐怖に震撼したのである。
 1980年代に入ってテレビに加えて新たなメディアが登場してきた。それはビデオである。ビデオの登場によってテロ組織はテロの目的をビデオに録画し、放送局を通じ放送できるようになった。それまでは単にテロ事件が報道されるだけであったのが、テロ組織が自らの目的を発信する手段を得たのである。その結果自爆犯が事前に録画したテロ決行の決意表明を録画したビデオが放送局を通じて放映されるようになった。とはいえ自らテレビ放送をすることまではできなかった。
 こうした状況を劇的に変えたのがネットの発達である。フェースブックやツイッターなどSNSを使えば今や誰もが自らの主張を世界中に伝えることができる。またYOUTUBEを使えば動画さえも世界中に配信できる。ネットのこの特性を利用してアルカイダは広報誌や広報ビデオを作成しネットを通じて世界中に配信し、自らの活動を宣伝している。さらに洗練された手法を用いているのが「イスラム国」である。アルカイダがアラビア語とせいぜい英語で発信していたのに比べ、「イスラム国」はアラビア語、英語はもちろん、ドイツ語やフランス語など多言語で発信している。今回の人質事件はネットやYOUTUBEなしではできなかった。さしずめYOUTUBEテロといって良いだろう
 ネットの発達によって、もっとも劇的な変化が起きたのは、既存のマスメディアとテロ組織との関係である。これまでテレビや新聞などの既存のマスメディアは、テロ組織のメガフォンの役割を果たしてきた。たとえ中立的にテロを報道するだけでも、テロ側にとって十分に宣伝効果はある。しかし、ネットの発達でテロ組織は既存のマスメディアに頼ることなく、自らの主張を世界中にくまなく発信することができるようになった。つまりテロ側にとって既存のマスメディアは不要になったのである。イスラム国が記者を次々に人質に取るのも、記者の役割がテロ組織にとって低下したことの表れである。事実今回の人質事件を見ても、現場での取材はほとんどなく、犯人側の要求をYOUTUBEやツイッターで探すなどサイバー空間上での取材となっている。現地対策本部のあるアンマンの日本大使館前からの中継ほどむなしい報道はなかった。各局ともネット情報以上の報道はほとんどなかった。
 テロの舞台がサイバー空間に移ったことで、これまでとは全く異なるテロ対策が必要になってきた。画像は合成ではないか、常に真偽のほどを確かめなければならなくなった。メールもなりすましではないか確認が必要になる。そして最大の問題は、テロ組織によるネットを通じた広報、宣伝を規制するのか否かである。一部では「イスラム国」のネットを規制すべきだとの意見も上がり始めている。しかし、ネットの自由を原則にしている日本をはじめ欧米自由諸国は簡単にはネット規制には踏み切れないだろう。さりとて「イスラム国」の宣伝を野放しにすれば、彼らはさらにテロをエスカレートさせるだろう。
「イスラム国」のテロの狙いは、テロの語源そのものである「恐怖による支配」だ。まさにネットはうってつけのメディアである。

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